博士Alokan和a楼陀罗, bt365心理学系的, addresses a number of reasons why 自闭症 和 注意力缺陷多动症 are both often missed or even misdiagnosed in girls 和 women 和 that the importance of a greater awareness of the symptoms 和 behaviour associated with 自闭症 和 注意力缺陷多动症 will be critical in changing how both are diagnosed.
Over the last decade or so, there’s been an uptick in the number of adults being diagnosed with 自闭症 和 注意力缺陷多动症. 许多因素都有可能 解释这个上升, including greater public awareness of both conditions, broader diagnostic criteria 和 改变看法 自闭症和多动症影响的人群.
但是尽管自闭症和多动症仍然影响着 更多的男性, more women are reporting being diagnosed with these conditions as adults. Again, this increase is probably due to any number of factors. But social media may also be playing a role, with women able to use platforms such as 推特 和 TikTok 来引发讨论 分享他们的经验 和 故事.
One constant in the experiences that many women have shared on social media is how long they waited for a diagnosis. Many have even spoken about how they were even brushed off by healthcare professionals when seeking a diagnosis, 直截了当地告诉他们不是自闭症或者他们的问题是“焦虑和。 没有多动症”. 对于许多, not knowing why they felt different from others left them feeling confused 和 even depressed.
This isn’t surprising, as 自闭症 和 注意力缺陷多动症 are both often missed or even misdiagnosed in women. 近 80%的女性自闭症患者 are misdiagnosed – often with conditions such as borderline personality disorder, 饮食失调, 双相情感障碍和焦虑. It’s currently unknown how often women with 注意力缺陷多动症 are misdiagnosed.
But there are a number of reasons that may explain why this happens. 首先是 自闭症 和 多动症的症状 女性和男性有什么不同吗. 其他常见病 自闭症 和 注意力缺陷多动症 (such as anxiety 和 depression) may also make it appear that symptoms are the result of these conditions instead. 女性患有自闭症 和 注意力缺陷多动症 may also learn over time how to 隐藏他们的症状 from people – which may further lead to misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis.
Another major problem is that 自闭症 和 注意力缺陷多动症 are still often seen as “male disorders”. 虽然这两种情况都会影响 男性比例高于女性, it also means that the current tools used to diagnose people with these conditions 倾向于不认识 女性的症状.
Girls with 自闭症 may have less obvious social difficulties 和 often have better verbal communication than a boy with 自闭症 might. 对于患有多动症的女孩, they often aren’t as hyperactive 和 may not have the disruptive behaviour some boys may have. This means that many girls with these conditions may be overlooked by their parents, teachers 和 even clinicians as the diagnostic criteria do not match with their symptoms.
When not properly diagnosed 和 treated in childhood, girls with 自闭症 or 注意力缺陷多动症 可能会经历 poor academic performance, behavioural problems 和 trouble making friends. 随着年龄的增长, this could make it more difficult for them to cope with professional dem和s in the workplace. It may also lead to anxiety 和 stress because they feel misunderstood or confused about why they find certain experiences so difficult, 与其他 心理健康问题 比如抑郁症和饮食失调.
In one study of women who weren’t diagnosed with 注意力缺陷多动症 or 自闭症 until adulthood, many participants reported feeling like they were “wrong” 和 didn’t fit in anywhere. Others even went as far as trying to change their clothes or personality to better fit in. 但在确诊后，参与者觉得他们 更好的理解 why they might feel the way they do 和 felt a greater sense of 个人价值 在接受诊断后.
Diagnosis can sometimes have a negative affect – with some women fearing they may be discriminated against, 别人可能会认为他们不好，或者人们会 俯视他们. But in general, finally receiving the right diagnosis makes most women feel they are 授权 有更好的生活质量.
If you think that you may have 自闭症 or 注意力缺陷多动症 but haven’t been diagnosed, 你可以做很多事情. 在线资源，如 AADDUK, 多动症注意 和 国家自闭症学会 all provide advice 和 suggestions on how to approach your GP with questions, 和 what support or specialist clinics there are in your area.
如果你打算去看医生, it might be helpful to take a loved one along with you for support 和 help in explaining why you think you may have 自闭症 or 注意力缺陷多动症. This may be as simple as telling them you have read about the conditions 和 have experienced similar symptoms.
Since all GPs may not have in-depth knowledge of 自闭症 or 注意力缺陷多动症, it’s important to present your experiences as clearly as you can. 如果可以的话，尽量用现实生活中的例子，这样会让你感觉舒服. If you don’t get a referral from your GP after your visit, seek a second appointment or even ask to see another GP at the surgery. 推荐后, you will be advised to visit a diagnostic service which should help you get the appropriate support you need.
Greater awareness of the symptoms 和 behaviour associated with 自闭症 和 注意力缺陷多动症 in girls 和 women will be important in changing how both are diagnosed – 和 hopefully mean that more girls 和 young women receive the help they need. And social media may be one important way in helping people learn more about these conditions, 把有相似经历的人联系起来.